Steroid abuse among athletes

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

In addition, the 2002 survey also determined how easy it was for school aged children to obtain steroids. The survey indicated 22% of eighth graders, % of tenth graders, and % of twelfth graders surveyed in 2002 reported that steroids were "fairly easy" or "very easy" to obtain. More than 57% of twelfth graders surveyed in 2002 reported that using steroids was a "great risk." Also, another study indicated that steroids are used predominately by males. The survey determined the annual prevalence rates were two to four times as high among males as among females.

The illicit anabolic steroid market includes steroids that are not commercially available in the . as well as those which are available. Steroids that are commercially available in the . include fluxoymesterone (Halotestin® ), methyltestosterone, nandrolone (Deca-Durabolin® , Durabolin ® ), oxandrolone (Oxandrin® ), oxymetholone (Anadrol® ), testosterone, and stanozolol (Winstrol® ). Veterinary steroids that are commercially available in the . include boldenone (Equipoise® ), mibolerone, and trenbolone (Revalor® ). Other steroids found on the illicit market that are not approved for use in the . include ethylestrenol, methandriol, methenolone, and methandrostenolone.

Steroid abuse among athletes

steroid abuse among athletes

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