Steroid hormones chemical structure

Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. This compound is a building block of polycarbonate plastics often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies have shown that BPA can leach from these and other products in contact with food and drink, and as a result, routine ingestion of BPA is presumed. This compound is also found in an enormous number of other products that we come into contact with daily, and therefore it is not surprising that it has been detected in the majority of individuals examined. BPA is a known endocrine disruptor. Although initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, more recent studies have demonstrated that BPA may be similar in potency to estradiol in stimulating some cellular responses. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that BPA may influence multiple endocrine-related pathways. Studies in rodents have identified adverse effects of BPA at levels at or below the current acceptable daily intake level for this compound. The various reported adverse effects of BPA are reviewed, and potential mechanisms of BPA action are discussed. Much more investigation is needed to understand the potential adverse health effects of BPA exposure in humans and to understand the multiple pathways through which it may act. Although many questions remain to be answered, it is becoming increasingly apparent that exposure to BPA is ubiquitous and that the effects of this endocrine disruptor are complex and wide-ranging.

DNP is one of if not the most powerful fat burner in history. This compound will see fat, pure body fat melt off the individual’s frame rapidly and abundantly. Further, once the fat is lost it will be very easy to maintain the now lower body fat percentage. This compound literally attacks and destroys fat cells. Consider twenty pounds of pure fat loss in only a few weeks. For that matter consider only half that amount and already you have an extremely appealing fat loss medication. No one can deny DNP is powerfully effective, so effective it’s seemingly magical when we consider the fat loss potential. However, we cannot consider the fat loss potential without recognizing the risks. DNP truly is poison, and it will claim lives. Granted, some will get away with use, this is simply the way many things work in life, but many will not. Even if you follow the guidelines about staying cool and keep your dose at a low to moderate level the risk is still there, you may die.

How might behaviors affect hormones? The birdsong example demonstrates how hormones can affect behavior, but as noted, the reciprocal relation also occurs; that is, behavior can affect hormone concentrations. For example, the sight of a territorial intruder may elevate blood testosterone concentrations in resident male birds and thereby stimulate singing or fighting behavior. Similarly, male mice or rhesus monkeys that lose a fight decrease circulating testosterone concentrations for several days or even weeks afterward. Comparable results have also been reported in humans. Testosterone concentrations are affected not only in humans involved in physical combat, but also in those involved in simulated battles. For example, testosterone concentrations were elevated in winners and reduced in losers of regional chess tournaments.

Because steroids are lipophilic, they diffuse easily through the cell membranes, and therefore have a very large distribution volume. In their target tissues, steroids are concentrated by an uptake mechanism which relies on their binding to intracellular proteins (or " receptors ", see below). High concentration of steroids are also found in adipose tissue, although this is not a target for hormone action. In the human male, adipose tissue contains aromatase activity, and seems to be the main source of androgen-derived estrogens found in the circulation. But most of the peripheral metabolism occurs in the liver and to some extent in the kidneys, which are the major sites of hormone inactivation and elimination, or catabolism (see below).

Steroid hormones chemical structure

steroid hormones chemical structure

Because steroids are lipophilic, they diffuse easily through the cell membranes, and therefore have a very large distribution volume. In their target tissues, steroids are concentrated by an uptake mechanism which relies on their binding to intracellular proteins (or " receptors ", see below). High concentration of steroids are also found in adipose tissue, although this is not a target for hormone action. In the human male, adipose tissue contains aromatase activity, and seems to be the main source of androgen-derived estrogens found in the circulation. But most of the peripheral metabolism occurs in the liver and to some extent in the kidneys, which are the major sites of hormone inactivation and elimination, or catabolism (see below).

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